Euroscepticism in Turkey
Icten Ural (Fatih University, Istanbul, Turkey) [BIO]
Turkish perceptions of Europe and European Union swing between a general willingness to be like Europe and join the European Union and at the same time the accompanying feelings suspicion and mistrust towards Europe and European Europe (Euro skepticism).
Westernization in Turkey started even before the foundation of the Turkish Republic, in 1839 during Ottoman Empire era with Tanzimat Fermani (Reform Declaration). There are four important periods in Westernization process of Turkey. First one begins with Tanzimat Fermani(1839) and ends with the foundation of new Turkish Republic (1923), second era is interwar period and one party era which ends in 1945, the next is cold war era between 1945 and 1990 and last one started after cold war and is continuing. It will be very helpful to observe the roots of Euro skepticism in the late Ottoman and Early Turkish Republican history in order to understand current perceptions of Turkish public. The last period must be examined detailed from diverse political and social groups and military aspects to understand varying degrees and types of Euro skepticism in Turkey.