Migratory interaction between Kazakhstan and Central Asian countries
Zimovina Yelena (Department of Archaeology, Ethnology and Native History, The Buketov Karaganda State University, Karaganda, Kazakhstan) [BIO]
Central Asia is a specific region due to the nature of some social demography and migration processes. Notwithstanding the fact that there are a lot of common characteristics, yet every country can be considered as a unique demographic model. Under influence of migration this model undergoes changes by itself.
As for the current developments the main migration problems for the countries of Central Asia are illegal labour migration, outflow of not native qualified scientist and engineer (so-called ‘brain drain’), and ecologic migration.
Alongside with these, there is an active process of repatriation among representatives of native nations in Central Asian countries.
During last years some problems are taking special significance; they are intensive in-migration throughout the vector ‘village-city’ and denoted process of city ruralization.
Heretofore, in migration legislations of some region countries the questions, concerning refugees and displaced persons are not regulated completely and some ethnic groups are prevented from getting this status at all.
The machinery of becoming a citizen and getting residence permit is heavy and contradictory. Nevertheless, Central Asian region is the territory of active migration exchange within and between adjoining states. This promoted some social and economic processes, being a way for betterment life conditions.
In comparison with other countries of Central Asia, Kazakhstan has considerable emigration and immigration rates more than two decades on end. Among four republics of Central Asia majority of migrants into Kazakhstan are ‘supplied’ by Uzbekistan. The second place belongs to Turkmenistan and Kyrgyzstan alternately. Peculiarity of migration from Tajikistan lies in annual reducing number of arrivals in Kazakhstan.
The main mass of those leaving Kazakhstan within the region is directed to Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan.
But, it is significant, that the quantity of Kazakhstan emigrants to these countries was reducing yearly.
Right up to 2004 the least quantity of emigrants from Kazakhstan chose Tajikistan as a country for living, but since 2004 it appeared to be Turkmenistan.
Thus, over the time of fifteen years migration exchange with Central Asia countries Kazakhstan had positive net of migration (with the exception of Kyrgyzstan: on this axis positive migration balance was observed only in 1999). It should be taken into consideration that demographic setting in Kazakhstan Republic was not stable at that period. Reducing number of population, which was lasting for almost ten years (since 1993), in 2002 changed into the tendency of increasing. This happened not only at the expense of birth rate, but also due to reducing emigration rate. Since 2004 positive migration balance was established. All these facts distinguish Kazakhstan among demographic regularity of Central Asian countries.