Trans Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften 15. Nr. August 2004

3.8. Well Being. Integrating Eastern Knowledge in Western Culture and Western Knowledge in Eastern Culture
HerausgeberIn | Editor | Éditeur: Maurits G.T Kwee (Buenos Aires/Tokorozawa)

Buch: Das Verbindende der Kulturen | Book: The Unifying Aspects of Cultures | Livre: Les points communs des cultures

Introducing the transcultural society for clinical meditation (TSCM)

Marja K. Taams & Maurits G.T Kwee (Transcultural Society for Clinical Meditation)


Who are we?

In July 1990 an international group of scientists and scholars meeting in Kyoto, Japan, established The Transnational Network for the Study of Physical, Psychological & Spiritual Wellbeing (TNSPPSW). The Network had begun as an informal group of core members and friends (that in the present form include J. Austin, M. Drummond, J. Dua, L. Freeman, T. Holdstock, M. Ichii, J. Kabat-Zinn, H. Kato, B. Khong, H.Kief, R. Kloppenborg, Y. Konno, F. Koshikawa, N. Kubota, M. Mahoney, K. Krishna Mohan, Y.Mohan, H. Nakajima, S. Nakamura, T. Oei, A. Onda, J. Pitayataratorn, C. Pert, M. Qian, M. Quintana Santana, M. Regmi, D. Rothenberg, A. Saito, Y. Sasaki, Y. Sawada, D. Shapiro Jr, S. Srinivasan, E. Stutchbury, G. Sugamura, M. Suzuki, J. Teasdale, K. Toombs, N. Tremblay, H. Wallnöfer, W. Wang, G. Weil, Y. Wu, H. de Wit, W. Yu, Y. Yuasa). With kind sponsorship from the Ibuka Foundation of Japan and the able leadership of Y. Haruki, conferences on various themes have been held in different parts of the world, in or near: Brussels (1992), Tokyo (1993), Montreal (1996), Beijing (1998), Amsterdam (2000), and Sydney (2002). Many researchers have been involved in these conferences as speakers (see Proceedings below) which merits continuation of the Network's activities. As the period of sponsorship from Ibuka has come to an end an alternate organizational structure is herein proposed.

To provide continuity, connection, and potential for growth, we have created a web-based society called the Transnational Society for Clinical Meditation (TSCM) and organized a 'click and mortar' office in The Netherlands with internet membership for people with interests in studying an integrative approach to human wellbeing. Marja Taams and Maurits Kwee serve as Directors of TSCM, supported by an Executive-Advisory Board. Members of this board are: P. Bankart, M. Blows, M. DelMonte, Y. Ishii, R. Kawano, R. Kertesz, W. Mikulas, Y. Sakairi, P. de Silva, M. Tophoff, while Y. Haruki serves as TSCM's Honorary President. A valued patron of TSCM is World Health Organization's director-general emeritus: H. Nakajima.


What do we aim?

Our main goal is to encourage efforts to study and practice forms of meditation serving human wellbeing and complementing the offerings of professional psychotherapy. Clinical Meditation (CM), as here and elsewhere described, is an experiential practice that is well developed in Asian wisdom traditions. CM aims to integrate Eastern and Western approaches to health and healing by promoting contemplative lifestyles. The adjective "clinical" is chosen to denote (a) the private and most confidential context of application, (b) the individual meaning and elaboration of one's meditative practice, and (c) the idiosyncratic nature of its benefits, which may include emotional balancing, preventive health care, and growth/self-actualization. We encourage a transcultural stance and technical eclecticism.

Meditation is not techniques, but any specific induced mindful experience via one's BASIC-I.D. (Behaviors, Affects, Sensations, Images, Cognitions, Interpersonal relations, and Drugs/entheogens) might be a springboard to not forgetfully attend the herenow purposefully and non-judgementally, accruing absorption and eventually an attitude of witnessing in choiceless awareness (e.g., via Vipassana or Zazen). It is no wonder that there exist numerous formally described meditations to cleanse the mind and attain altered states of consciousness. The state of the art of classifying meditation techniques is in a mess. Nevertheless it seems that outcome studies on some clinically applied meditations have matured in the past seven decades, generally resulting in confirmations of its relatively salubrious effects. Most techniques stem from the Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Judaic, Sufi, and Taoist traditions. Of the existing grand doctrines we recognize Buddhist and Taoist practices - and Zen as its blending - as a mode of meditative living that strive for self-realization without worshipping a Deity and might therefore be practiced without giving up one's devotion and religion. By embracing constructivism as a secular meta-psychology - that largely overlaps the perennial psychology of Zen - we believe to be in the middle of a paradigm shift wherein we stand for the synthesis of the-East-and-the-West as an enlightened mentality in our clinical practice.


Why do we care?

As there are as many meditations as gurus and allegiances pledged, we try to ferret out the false from the real. We adhere to the use of meditations drawn from diverse sources without also necessarily subscribing to the notions that spawned them. In order to meet the canon of scientific specificity - which meditation technique works best for whom and under what circumstances? - we are interested in any technique as long as (a) it is applicable across cultures, (b) stripped off of any idolatry and religious doctrine, and (c) its effects can be proven empirically. Thus, we wish to stimulate best clinical practice (evidence based) and further a well founded status for the field. This includes the search for adequate theories that are capable to account for and make sense out of bewildering practices and assertions while heeding Occam's razor. We stimulate inquiry that is amenable to scientific evaluation and theoretical integration.

Weprofessionalism by advancing a health profession that respects the canons of empirical science based on a wholistic BioPsychoSocial-and-Spiritual outlook of defined as a subfield of clinical psychology and complementary counterpart of psychotherapy based on the academic knowledge gathered in the second half of the 20th century on until now about the clinical application of Eastern meditation techniques. Its goal is to understand and help individuals to practice meditation in order to alleviate existential-emotional suffering, to attain states beyond pure emotion tolevels of consciousness known as Satori.studies reveal that a selection of meditation techniques secured favorable results in the areas of health promotion, prevention, care, healing, and managerial functioning. To date, CM - although capable of mitigating and extenuating clinical symptoms as an adjunct, pre-therapy, or preventive measure - cannotadamant claims for cure. Thus, TSCM studies the alleviation of existential neurosis & psychological growtha wisdom traditions' perspective. Transcultural stands for: beyond cultural confines & national boundaries, Society for: promoting free web-based memberships, e-Library, e-Journal, academic curriculum, Ph.D.-thesis coaching, conventions, symposia, awards, lectures, workshops, etc. Clinical for: individual matching, tailoring, diagnosing personality and psychopathology (as listed in the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders), and Meditation for: all meditations, especially NeoZEN, an exponent of TSCM. (The first Ph.D. thesis, an empirical and theoretical study, which was approved by a Utrecht University Netherlands' committee included four TSCM core members - Y. Haruki, R. Kertesz, R. Kloppenborg, and M. Kwee - saw printer's light: "Chan Buddhism: Implications of Awareness and Mindfulness-Training for Managerial Functioning" by M. Tophoff (see below for a reference).

Where do we go from here?

TSCM wishes to realize the advancement, dissemination, and implementation of CM for the alleviation of human emotional suffering and Satori (enlightenment). It bows for no religious creed, is against any cult, sect, zealotry, or delimited schools of thought, and places science in its center. We envision a quantum leap in the foreseeable future, i.e. that ultimate progress will simultaneously come from biotechnological hardware as a tangible result of genomics and nanotechnology (e.g., changing atoms to transform coal into diamond. The unveiling of the human genome and development of cellular semiconductors will likely provide humankind the possibility of longevity in good health and a computerized condition for instant Satori. What can be our task going forward when the state of Nirvana is endorsed by molecular chips? We submit that the experiencing of emotional states and spirituality as well as sense and meaning making remain a human quality for which no technological surrogate exists. This implies that by then we will still be in need of CM when striving for inner balance and growth, like software providing content for the hardware. When gurus and disciplinary hardship have outlived their usefulness, we ourselves are in charge to decide whether or not to turn on the hardware, to apply the software, and to speed our beings to a next evolutionary phase of 'Buddhahood' (by lack of a better word). CM including technical eclecticism and the ethics of attaining enlightenment (necessarily culture free) might provide some answers to overcome stumbling blocks down the road. The future might bring about a postgraduate curriculum for a certified education in a new academic profession of 'Master of Clinical Meditation Studies (CMS)' to warrant quality in the mushrooming market of spirituality.

The TSCM had its first convention in Bari, Italy (2003) as part of the 8th Congress of the Society for Constructivism in the Human Sciences (SCHS), directed by M. J. Mahoney. At this joint congress a confluence was established between SCHS and the TSCM. Indeed we have found in constructivism a comprehensive postmodern meta-theory for the human sciences in general and CM in particular. TSCM embraces the SCHS conceptualization of human beings as "actively complex, socially-embedded, and developmentally dynamic self-organizing systems" to which we would like to add "with the potential to become Buddhas." Such a post-positivistic and post-objectivist outlook honors subjectively constructed realities as well as contextualism, relativism, the Socratic wisdom of 'not-knowing' and the Buddha's wisdom of 'not-self'. It includes the post-rational that goes beyond the pre-rational, the (ir)rational, and the trans-rational. By embracing constructivism as a secular meta-psychology that largely overlaps with the perennial psychology of Zen, we find ourselves in the middle of a paradigm shift wherein we are promoting the synthesis of the East and the West as an enlightened mentality in our clinical practice, theory, and research.


When and how will we reach our goal?

Our discovery of this resonance with constructivism inspired us to think that the TSCM as a small group might evolve to become part of the larger SCHS and thus of mainstream psychology (our ultimate striving). However, to honor the tradition we have established in our own right, we will continue the work of the original (1990) Network by establishing TSCM and continuing to attract our own membership. From this juncture TSCM and SCHS will go forward jointly organizing congresses and projects. This expansion is a first step. We are already on the lookout for a next coalescent process, guided by an adage found in the 27th verse of the Tao Teh Ching:

A good traveler has no fixed plans
and is not intent upon arriving.
A good artist lets his intuition
lead him wherever it wants.
A good scientist has freed himself of concepts
and keeps his mind open to what is.

At this juncture the TSCM is in a continuous process of developing a curriculum for a course and of conducting seminars and workshops to educate postmodern Senseis (Masters in CMS, or what W. Mikulas has called 'integrative helpers'), who are well-versed in NeoZEN (a clinical psychological approach to Zen - a Buddhist meditation practice for inner liberation that traveled from India via China and Japan to the West - tailored to the individual, that includes scientific evidence and the Buddha's extant instructions, that travels back to the East in a regenerated condition, rejuvenating and revitalizing its practice, as Dhammawest or West-ayana: the dhammawheel that turns from the West to the East). A TSCM symposium on NeoZEN was held in Vienna, Austria (November, 2003) during the congress "The Unifying Aspects of Cultures", organized by INST (Research Institute for Austrian and International Literature and Cultural Sciences). The six contributions of this symposium "Well-being: Integrating Eastern Knowledge in Western Culture and Western Knowledge in Eastern Culture" can be found in TRANS - Internet Journal for Cultural Sciences (ISSN 1560-182X) ( and is also available on cd-rom and printed book form (INST-Series I). Amongst other planned activities, the next TSCM-SCHS congress is projected in Buenos Aires, Argentina (2005). Let us finish by stating that this article is intended to communicate our enthusiasm about the recent SCHS-TSCM confluence and cordially invite readers to visit our TSCM Invitational Website ( ) and to logon to our Members' Website. Contact for a login and password to enter the pages or to order books. Below is a list of works warranting our society's track record as a basis for future social action.

Constructivism in the Human Sciences, 2003, Vol. 8, No.2. (275 pp) 'A TRIBUTE TO YUTAKA HARUKI' (Special Issue on Clinical Meditation) (Order by subscribing to the journal or email

Table of Contents
Editorial - Michael J. Mahoney
Guest Editors' Editorial - Maurits G.T. Kwee & Marja K. Taams
The formative history of The Network and unfinished business - Mark Blows
Buddhism and psychotherapy: Experiencing and releasing dis-ease - Belinda S.L. Khong
Between and betwixt: A balancing acttwo cultures - Saroja Srinivasan
A Western psychologist's inquiry into the nature of right effort - C. Peter Bankart
Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) - Jon Kabat-Zinn
Mindfulness, wisdom and eating: Applying a multi-domain model of meditation effects - Jean L. Kristeller
Words and wisdom, being and boundaries - Michael J. Mahoney
Conjunctive psychology appreciates Yutaka Haruki - William L. Mikulas
Control Therapy: An overview and personal observations from life's golden third - Deane H. Shapiro, Jr
Mindfulness and de-construction - Michael M. DelMonte
Obstacles to insight: Some reflections on an aspect of Buddhist psychology - Padmal De Silva
NeoZEN: A "structing" psychology into non-self and beyond - Maurits G. T. Kwee
Buddhism and psychotherapy: An exploratory study - K. Krishna Mohan
Biosketch and bibliography of Professor Yutaka Haruki, PhD

M. M. Tophoff (2003). Chan Buddhism: Implications of awareness and mindfulness-training for managerial functioning. Destelbergen, Belgium: Cartim bvba (271 pp). (Order ISBN 9039333483 by email

General introduction
Part I: Ways of Personal Development in Daoism and Chan Buddhism
1. Introduction
2. Daoism
2.1. Nature and Immortality
2.2. Philosophical Daoism
2.3. Daoist Theories of Personal Development
2.4. Daoist Practice of Personal Development
2.5. Daoism: Its Relevance for Managerial Functioning - A Summary
3. Chan Buddhism
3.1. Legends and Histories
3.2. The Linji Zong
3.3. The Caodong Zong
3.4. Chan Buddhist Practice of Personal Development
3.5. Chan Buddhism : Its Relevance for Managerial Functioning - A Summary
Part II: Ways of Personal DevelopmentChange in Shintoism and Zen Buddhism
1. Introduction
2. Shintoism: Nature and the Divine
2.1. Nature: 'Altar Mountains - Sacred Forest'
2.2. Ethics: 'Knowing Your Station in Life'
2.3. Practice: Harmony through Purification
3. Zen Buddhism
3.1. The Rinzai School
3.2. The Soto School
3.3. Zen Practice of Personal Development
3.4. Bushido: The Way of the Warrior
3.5. Zen and the West
3.6. Zen Buddhism: Its Relevance for Managerial Functioning - A Summary
Part III: Chan Buddhism and Managerial Functioning: An Interface
1. Introduction
2. The Manager within the Organization
2.1. Existential Considerations
2.2. Ethical Considerations
3. The Practice of Mindfulness
3.1. Meditation in Action
3.2. Basic Conditions
3.3. Applications
3.4. Research Evidence
4. Chan Buddhism and Managerial Functioning - A Summary
Part IV: Sensory Awareness as a Training Method for Mindfulness: An Empirical Study
1. Introduction
2. The Way of Sensory Awareness
2.1. Historical Foundations
2.2. Theoretical Considerations
3. Sensory Awareness as Practice: a Training Seminar for Managers 3.1. Introduction
3.2. Implementation
4. The Effects of Sensory Awareness Seminars
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Method
4.3. Results
4.4. Discussion
4.5. Summary
5. Sensory Awareness as a Training Method for Mindfulness - A Summary
Index of Names
Index of Concepts
Appendix I: Transcription of Chinese Daoist/Buddhist Names
Appendix II: Transcription of Japanese Buddhist Names
Appendix III: Information Sheet Seminar Sensory Awareness
Appendix IV: OQ®-45.2 Questionnaire
Summary in Dutch
Curriculum Vitae

Y.Haruki (Convenor), & K.T. Kaku (Ed.).(2000), Meditation as Health Promotion: A Lifestyle Modification Approach. Delft, Holland: Eburon Publishers (x + 165 pp). Proceedings, the 6th Conference, July 20-21, 2000, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. (Order ISBN 905166758X by email

Yutaka Haruki & Maurits Kwee - Introduction
Chapter 1 Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in the Prevention of Relapse and Recurrence in Major Depression - John Teasdale (UK)
Chapter 2 Working with Existential and Neurotic Suffering - Han de Wit (NL)
Chapter 3 Behaviors of the Mind, Meditation, and Health - William Mikulas (USA)
Chapter 4 Taijiquan, Human Mental Activity and Health - Mingyi Qian (China)
Chapter 5 Body Awareness and Self-Regulation - Jan van Dixhoorn (NL)
Chapter 6 Metaphors and Messages in Movement Meditation - Michael Mahoney (USA)
Chapter 7 A Spiritual Dimension to Health in the 21st. Century: Why Now? - Hiroshi Nakajima (J)
Chapter 8 Buddhist Psychology and Health Enhancement - Padmal de Silva (UK)
Chapter 9 Zen Buddhism and the Way of Sensory Awareness - Michael Tophoff (NL)
Chapter 10 Is Meditation Efficacious as a Stress Reduction Intervention? - A Cardiovascular Hemodynamic Approach - Yukihiro Sawada (J)
Maurits Kwee & Yutaka Haruki - Closing address
Appendix 1 Plenary Meditation: The Transforming Force of the Laughing Meditation - Dhyan Sutorius, M.D. (NL)
Appendix 2 Discussion Paper: Spiritual Dimensions in Oriental Health Care: Heart (Kokoro) and Spirit (Ki) - Hiroshi Nakajima, M.D. (J)

W. Wang, Y. Sasaki, & Y. Haruki (Eds.).(2000), Bodywork and Psychotherapy in the East. Delft, Holland: Eburon Publishers (viii + 256 pp) Combined Proceedings, the 5th Conference 'Qigong, Meditation, and Hypnosis', April 27-30, 1998, Beijing, China & of the International Symposium 'Psychotherapy and Eastern Thought', 1st AWCP Congress (the Asia Division of the World Council for Psychotherapy), May 1, 1998, Beijing, China. (Order ISBN 9051668112 by email

Preface - Yutaka Haruki & Wang Weidong
PART I - Qigong, Meditation, and Hypnosis
Ch 1 Co-Experience Between Therapist and Client During Therapeutic Touch - Yoshitaka Konno (J)
Ch 2 Meditation in Zen and Altered States of Consciousness - Shoji Nakamura (J)
Ch 3 The Concept of Energy in Yoga-Vedanta - Saroja Srinivasan (Aus)
Ch 4 The Taoist Yoga and Self-Hypnosis: On Fact, Fiction, Magic, and the Supernatural - Maurits G.T. Kwee (NL)
Ch 5 Necessity of "Knowledge by Acquiantance" - Mark Blows (Aus)
Ch 6 Issues in the Evaluation of Traditional Therapeutic Strategies in the Context of Present Day Clinical Practice - Padmal de Silva (UK)
Ch 7 Brief Introduction in the History of Qigong - Song Tiangbing (China)
Ch 8 Current Status of Experimental Research in Chinese Qigong - Liu Tianjun (China)
Ch 9 Current Status of Clinical Research in Chinese Qigong - Wang Weidong, Wu Yu & Zhao Yang (China)
Ch10 Scientific Analysis of Internal Qigong in Curing Disease: The Six-Word Practice (Rokujiketsu) and Guolin New Qigong - Yoshio Machi & Chao Liu (J)
Ch11 Non-Attachment, Dis-Identification, and Dissociation in Meditation, Qigong, and Hypnosis: Adaptive or Mal-Adaptive? - Michael M. DelMonte (Eire)
Ch12 Qigong, Hypnosis and Autogenic Training - Heinrich Wallnöfer (Austria)
Ch13 Japanese Health Promotive Methods Compared with Qigong - Hiroki Kato (J)
Ch14 Qigong in the West: Challenges, Hazards and Opportunities - Peter Bankart (USA)
Ch15 Qigong and its Implication for Hypnosis - Gosaku Naruse (J)
Ch16 Meditation and Sexuality: A New Interpretation of Qigong and its Present-Day Significance - Yuasa Yasuo (J)
PART II - Psychotherapy and Oriental Thought
Ch17 Influence of Buddhism on the Psychotherapy in Japan - Yuji Sasaki (J)
Ch18 Thoughts of Chinese Philosophy and Psychotherapy - Mingyi Qian (China)
Ch19 Application and Effect of Buddhism and Taoism in the Treatment of Neurotic Disorder with Morita Therapy - Guiying Wu & Xiangyang Zhang (China)
Ch20 A Technique of Self-Awareness in the East - Fusako Koshikawa (J)
Ch21 Psychotherapy and 'Do' in Japanese Culture: Self-Cultivation Through Tackling a Set Task - Yosuke Sakairi (J)
Ch22 Effect of Eastern Bodywork as Somato-Psycho-Therapy - Yutaka Haruki (J)
Ch23 Control Therapy: Contributions of Eastern and Western Approaches to Psychotherapy - Shauna L.Shapiro, John A.Astin, & Deane H.Shapiro (USA)
Ch24 Western and Eastern Approach to Corporal and Spiritual Well-Being: Are there Common Roots? - H. Wallnöfer (Austria)

M.M. DelMonte, & Y. Haruki (Eds.).(1998), The Embodiment of Mind: Eastern and Western Perspectives. Delft, Holland: Eburon Publishers (169 pp). Combined Proceedings, the 4th Conference 'Body over Mind or Mind over Body: Does it Matter?', August 12-15, 1996, Chateauguay, Canada & of the Symposium ' Does the Concept of Embodiment Offers Something New in Psychology?', August 20, 1996, at the XXVI International Congress of Psychology, Montreal, Canada. (Order ISBN 9051666381 by email

Part I: Body over mind or mind over body: Does it matter? - M. DelMonte
Ch 1 What kind of discipline is the mind/body problem? - Y. Haruki (J)
Ch 2 The mind versus body debate - M. DelMonte (Eire)
Ch 3 Does it matter if the meditator doen't mind? On consciousness and awareness of the BASICI.D. - M. Kwee (NL)
Ch 4 The common ground between two great wisdom traditions: Mahayana Buddhism and Christianity: What can psychologists learn? - M. Blows (Aus)
Ch 5 What does meditation change? Measurement of cognitive styles - Y. Sakairi (J)
Ch 6 The process of self-actualisation through practising the Japanese martial art Aikido - Y. Konno (J)
Ch 7 How to use Taoist meditation to accelerate the healing process - N. Tremblay (Canada)
Ch 8 The primacy of mind in early Buddhist psychology - P. de Silva (UK)
Ch 9 Mind and body - Dualistic notion of non-dualistic nature: Issues for the scientist-practitioner - S. Srinivasan (Aus)
Ch10 Study of the psychology and the behavioural science of Qigong - W. Wang (China)
Ch11 Tibetan meditation, Yoga and healing practices: Mind-body interconnections - E. Stutchbury (Aus)
Ch12 The embodied mind, the talking cure and the silence of meditation - M. DelMonte (Eire)
Part II: Does the concept of embodiment offer something new in psychology? - Y.Haruki & J. Kabat-Zinn
Ch13 Embodied mind and Mini Shimite Wakaru - Y. Haruki (J)
Ch14 The matter of mind - C. Pert (USA)
Ch15 Imagining is acting: Experienced physical action as the basis for imagination and linguistic knowledge - K. Miyazaki (J)
Ch16 The body as lived: Recognizing lived body disruption in illness - K. Toombs (USA)

M.G.T. Kwee, & T.L. Holdstock (Eds.).(1996), Western and Buddhist Psychology: Clinical Perspectives. Delft, Holland: Eburon Publishers (xiv + 338pp). (Order ISBN 905166477X by email

General Introduction - Maurits Kwee & Len Holdstock
Part I. A Western psychologist in dis-ease
Ch 1 Dis-ease in psychology: The basis for a new beginning? - Len Holdstock
Ch 2 Travelling within - Len Holdstock
Ch 3 Exploring our relatedness without - Len Holdstock
Part II. Buddhist psychology and Zen lore
Ch 4 Buddhist psychology: Theory and therapy - Padmal de Silva
Ch 5 Happiness and suffering in Buddhist psychology - Han de Wit
Ch 6 Travelling in the footsteps of Hotei towards the 21st century - Maurits Kwee
Part III. Conjunctive clinical perspectives
Ch 7 A multimodal systems view on psyche, affect, and the basic emotions - Maurits Kwee
Ch 8 Systems theory and psychotherapy: A constructivist perspective - Michael DelMonte
Ch 9 Towards a conjunctive psychology: Happiness and levels of being - William Mikulas

Y. Haruki, Y. Ishii, & M. Suzuki (Eds.).(1996), Comparative and Psychological Study on Meditation. Delft, Holland: Eburon Publishers (x + 238 pp). Proceedings, the 3rd Conference, August 30-September 2, 1993, Makuhari, Chiba, Japan. (Order ISBN 9051664834 by email

Chapter 1 Some aspects of meditation - Y. Haruki, Y. Ishii & M. Suzuki (J)
Chapter 2 Meditation and the view of nature in East Asia: The human being as a small heaven and earth - Y. Yuasa (J)
Chapter 3 Early Buddhist meditation and mental health - P. de Silva (UK)
Chapter 4 Yoga meditation: History and philosophy of the wisdom traditions and
practical contemporary clinical applications - M.W. Blows (Aus)
Chapter 5 Vipassana meditation as taught in the meditation centers initiated by S.N. Goenka - S. Srinivasan (Aus)
Chapter 6 Zen and health - S. Nakamura (J)
Chapter 7 Ajikan meditation of Shingon Buddhism - T. Yamasaki (J)
Chapter 8 Chinese Qigong and Qigong psychology - J.S. Wang (China)
Chapter 9 Jewish meditation: Context and content - Historical back- ground, types, purpose - M. Verman & D.H. Shapiro, Jr. (USA)
Chapter 10 Meditation in the Christian tradition - M.M. DelMonte (Eire)
Chapter 11 Travelling in the footsteps of Hotei: A spiritual and scientific journey - M.G.T. Kwee (NL)
Chapter 12 Mindfulness meditation: What it is, what it isn't, and its role in health care and
medicine - J. Kabat-Zinn (USA)
Chapter 13 Application of the meditative method in psychotherapy with an emphasis on
Transcendental Meditation and Autogenic Training - Y. Sakairi (J)
Chapter 14 A technique of meditation based on Yoga philosophy and cognitive-behavioural theory - J. Dua (Aus)
Chapter 15 The relaxation response: Physiological effects and medical applications -
R. Friedman, M. Steinman & H. Benson (USA)
Chapter 16 An experiment on classifications of meditation methods: Procedures, goals and
effects - F. Koshikawa & M. Ichii (J)

Y. Haruki, Y. Ishii, & M. Suzuki (Eds.).(1994), Current State of Eastern Medicine Around the World. Report by The Transnational Network for the Study of Physical, Psychological & Spiritual Wellbeing and The Advanced Research Center for Human Sciences, Waseda Universty, Japan. (Including a Report on Meditation-Related Research: U.S. Scientists by the Institute of Noetic Sciences, Sausolito, CA, USA.) (ii +143 pp). (Order: Waseda University, School of Human Sciences, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorazawa, Saitama 359, Japan)

Preface - Y. Haruki, Y. Ishii & M. Suzuki
Meditation-Related Research: U.S. Scientists - T.J. Hurley III & D.H. Shapiro
The Current State of Eastern Medicine in Australia - M.W. Blows & J. Dua
Current State of Studies and Application of Eastern Body-Mind Practices in Europe - A. Saito
The Current State of Eastern Medicine in Ireland - M. DelMonte
The Current State of Eastern Medicine in China - J. Wang
Current State of Eastern Medicine in Japan - Y. Takahashi

M. Blows (Ed.).(1993), Towards the Whole Person: Integrating Eastern and Western Approaches to Body-Mind Skills. Kenthurst, NSW: Linking Publications (vi + 98 pp). Proceedings of the 2nd Conference, July 15-17, 1992, Bruges, Belgium. (Order ISBN 064613252 by email

Preface - Benoit Standaert
Editor's Foreword
1. A warm-up to the workshop Johanna Blows (Aus)
2. Towards integrating Eastern and Western traditions: Opening address - Yutaka Haruki (J)
3. Meditation and personal identity - Laurence Freeman (B) Psychology of meditation
4 Therapeutic aspects of meditation - Michael Delmonte (Eire)
5 Meditation training: Training to do what and how to do it? Jagdish Dua (Aus)
6 Vipassana meditation: Reflections of a participant observer - Saroja Srinivasan (Aus)
7 Meditation and psychotherapy - Akira Onda (J)
Theoretical explorations
8 Implications of contextual change for psychological research on Eastern thought and practice - Akiko Saito (UK)
9 The varieties of emotional experience: A systemic view - Maurits Kwee (NL)
Practices to open the heart
10 Lectio Divina - Ria Weyens (B)
11 Meditation and compassion - Mark Blows (Aus)
Body-mind integration
12 Breath taking feeling - Yutaka Haruki (J)
13 Breathing and breathing method - Yutaka Haruki (J)
14 Mudras and meditation - Maureen Lockhart Sandhu (India)
15 Body and mind in Chinese martial arts - Stewart McFarlane (UK)
16 Should St. George have killed the dragon? The Tantric approach: The challenge of entering a spiritual journey as distinct from a useful health treatment - Mark Blows (Aus)
Toward the essence
17 The view of Raja Yoga: Toward the whole person (world change through self-change) - Didi Sudesh (UK)
18 Moslem spirituality - Luk Omar van den Broeck (B)

Japanese Health Psychology, Vol.1, No.1, December 1992, edited and published by The Japanese Association of Health Psychology, Tokyo (112 pp). (This monograph comprises papers presented at the symposium 'Eastern Techniques for Mental Health around the World' held at Komazawa University in Tokyo, July 21, 1990 - when The Transnational Network was formed at the invitation of Yutaka Haruki - and at the symposium 'Eastern and Western Approaches to Mental and Physical Health' during the the 22nd International Congress of Applied Psychology in Kyoto, July 21, 1990). (Order ISBN 4761004940 by email (Dept. of Psychology, School of Literature, Waseda University, 1-24-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162, Japan)

Preface - Yutaka Haruki (J)
Part I: Eastern techniques for mental and physical health around the world.
Deane H. Shapiro, Jr. (USA): Zen meditation, cognitive/behavioral psychology, and a religious quest.
Mark W. Blows (Aus): Current status of research and practice in Australia.
Wang Jisheng (PRC): Psychological studies of Chinese traditional therapy.
Yuji Sasaki (J): Eastern techniques concerning the health of the mind and the body.
Yasutomi Taniguchi (J): An overview: Psychophysiological approach to meditation in Japan.
Part II: Eastern approaches to mental and physical health.
Wang Jisheng (PRC): Psychological study of Qigong
Michael M. DelMonte (Eire): Meditation: Mindfulness and repression.
Deane H. Shapiro, Jr. (USA): Scientific research on the content and context of meditation.
Mark W. Blows (Aus): Lifting the mask: Ways of working towards inner freedom.
Akira Onda (J): Zen, self-control and creativity.
C. Peter Bankart (USA): Some Western questions for an Eastern psychology.

M. Blows, & S. Srinivasan (Eds.).(1992), Perspectives on Relaxation and Meditation. Melbourne: Spectrum Publications (x + 222 pp). (This book had its origins in 1988 when a group of psychologists held a symposium at the 24th International Congress of Psychology in Sydney and marked the preparation of The Transnational Network's conferences). (Order ISBN 0867861398 by email

Preface - Mark W. Blows & Saroja Srinivasan
Chapter 1 Relaxation and meditation: The relationship between them and historical context - Mark W. Blows
Chapter 2 East meets West: Six techniques of relaxation and meditation - John L. Sheppard
Chapter 3 Meditation as technique of cognitive-behaviour therapy - Jagdish Dua
Chapter 4 The relevance of meditation to clinical practice: A mainly Kellian perspective - Michael M. DelMonte
Chapter 5 Zen practice and meditation - Shoji Nakamura
Chapter 6 Awareness through movement - Teruhiko Kuroda
Chapter 7 Classification of Eastern self-practicing techniques (gyohos) and their characteristics - Yutaka Haruki
Chapter 8 Effects of Transcendental Meditation for reducing anxiety of Japanese businessmen - Yosuke Sakairi
Chapter 9 Normality, transcendence and meditation: Indian perspectives - Madan N. Palsane
Chapter10 Zen, satori (enlightenment) and creativity - Akira Onda
Chapter11 Meditation research: Toward new directions - Saroja Srinivasan

M.G.T. Kwee (Ed.).(1990), Psychotherapy, Meditation & Health: A Cognitive-Behavioural Perspective. London/The Hague: East-West Publications (320 pp). Proceedings of the First International Conference on Psychotherapy, Meditation, & Health, March 16-18, 1990, Noordwijkerhout, The Netherlands. (This conference might be considered as a precursor of the Transnational Network's conferences.) (Order ISBN 0856921890 by email )

Section I: General Introduction
Introduction to Section I
1 The Psychology of Meditation - Daniel Goleman (USA)
2 Cognitive and Behavioural Approaches to Meditation - Maurits Kwee (NL)
3 The Four Paths to Peace of Mind: Limitations to Personal Growth - Guy Claxton (UK)
Section II: Self-Control and Control by a 'Benevolent Other'
Introduction to Section II
4 Is God a Confounding Variable in Meditation Research? Through an Hourglass Lightly - Deane Shapiro, Jr. (USA)
Section III: Self-Control and Buddhist Approaches
Introduction to Section III
5 Basic Sanity A Buddhist Approach to Health - Han de Wit (NL)
6 Mindfulness, Self-Control, and Personal Growth - William Mikulas (USA)
7 Meditation and Beyond: Buddhism and Psychotherapy - Padmal DeSilva (UK)
Section IV: Cultic Approaches: TM, Sufism, and Rajneeshism
Introduction to Section IV
8 The Approach of the Sufi Message - Johannes Witteveen & Hazrat Inayat Khan (NL)
9 Psychotherapy, Free Energy, and Meditation - Swami Deva Amrito (NL)
10 Maharishi's Vedic Psychology: Alleviate Suffering by Enliving Bliss - Reconnecting the Partial Values of Life with the Wholeness of Life - Paul Gelderloos (NL)
Section V: Non-Cultic Approaches: Zen, Tao, and Relaxation
Introduction to Section V
11 Relativism as Applied in Cognitive-Behaviour Therapy and Zen-Meditation - Maurits Kwee (NL)
12 Chi-Kung: The Taoist Way of Cultivating Life-Force Energy - Implications for Western Psychology - Gunther Weil (USA)
13 Stress, Relaxation, and Changes in the Immune System - Yanda van Rood & Els Goulmy (NL)
14 Health Psychology and Meditation by Genuine Laughing and Smiling - Maurits Kwee (NL)
List of Contributors
Subject Index

Acknowledgements and correspondence.

This is an updated version (2004) of an article, earlier published in: Constructivism in the Human Sciences, 2000, 5, 77 - 87. Thanks are due to Y.Haruki, Y.Ishii, R.Kawano, Y.Sakairi, and G.Sugamura for their endorsement of the TSCM. Requests for further information on TSCM and its Master of CMS program can be sent to

© Marja K. Taams & Maurits G.T Kwee (Transcultural Society for Clinical Meditation)

3.8. Well Being. Integrating Eastern Knowledge in Western Culture and Western Knowledge in Eastern Culture

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For quotation purposes:
Marja K. Taams & Maurits G.T Kwee (Transcultural Society for Clinical Meditation): Introducing the transcultural society for clinical meditation (TSCM). In: TRANS. Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften. No. 15/2003. WWW:

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