Trans Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften 16. Nr. Juli 2006

4.3. Die inter- und transdisziplinären Verhältnisse kultureller Vermittlung
Herausgeberin | Editor | Éditeur: Zoltán Zsávolya (Budapest, Győr)

Dokumentation | Documentation | Documentation

A Lyrical Novel and its Filmic Adaptation.
(Sándor Weöres: Psyché and Gábor Bódy: Narcissus and Psyché)

Éva Ócsai (Universität Szeged)


At the moment if somebody who doesn’t speak Hungarian wants to enjoy one of the greatest works of art of twentieth century Hungarian literature, they have to learn Hungarian. Psyché is a lyrical novel, which was written by Sándor Weöres (1913-1989), who is above all known as one of the most significant poets of Hungary, whose poetry encompasses a wide range of techniques and metric forms. He had a talent not only to write at ease and with elegance in all possible lyrical forms of Hungarian poetry but also those of Latin, Greek, Western European and even Sanskrit poetry. He could also easily and perfectly imitate the style of the ancient and modern poetic works, as well as that of almost all European, Asiatic and African poetry and languages. Because of his special talent of transforming into very different roles through language, he was an excellent translator and playwright. In addition, his deep interest in ancient poetry, religions and mythology let him create a world view that forms the background of most of his writings.

He used all his special knowledge when he wrote Psyché or the writings of an old-time poetess. Erzsébet Mária Psyché Lónyay is the full name of a fictional Hungarian poetess who lived in the first half of the nineteenth century, and her poetry is written in the style of among others Csokonai and Berzsenyi and other significant Hungarian poets of the period. On the one hand, the work by Sándor Weöres contains the ingenious fictitious poetry, the correspondence and the memories of Psyché, an attractive woman who followed her instincts in both her poetry and erotic life, and she wrote basically in accordance with the rococo, classical, romantic, sentimental and folk style typical of the literary period. On the other hand, the book contains the works of Ungvárnémeti, a poet who really existed at the time, and besides the selection of his poetry written mainly under the influence of classicism, and in addition to the writings of Psyché a tragedy entitled Narcissus can also be found in the book, in which Ungvárnémeti is also referred to as Narcissus due to his self-love. The last chapters of the book are the memories of an actress about Psyché in 1842, the reflections of a contemporary literary historian in 1871 and another one a hundred years later in 1971, in the year of the writing of the book, and in this way past and present are connected together.

Psyché’s invented poetry is interwoven with the real Ungvárnémeti-Narcissus poems, the literary texts and the story of their lives are also inseparable, and thus the existence of the imaginary Psyché is authenticated by the connections created between the references to the nineteenth century Hungarian language, literary and cultural history, poetry and canon formation, however, these allusions make it almost impossible to translate the text into any foreign languages and the cultures belonging to them. The combination of fact and fiction is complicated by the mythical roles of the major characters, and the mythical world view which complements the basic plot structure of the story, and looks at it from the point of view of a universal recurrence; therefore, the novel has a double plot.

To put it in a nutshell, the life story and poetry of the fictitious Psyche, the rebellious poetess is a pseudo documentary fiction interwoven with a mythical story-line, and the only way for a non-speaker of the Hungarian language to get a picture of this lyrical novel is to watch its filmic adaptation entitled Narcissus and Psyche (1980) directed by Gábor Bódy, a Hungarian neo-avant-garde film director. In the following part of the presentation I aim at comparing the lyrical novel with the film, and summarising to what extent the film can be considered as the counterpart of the original text, and what the basic similarities and differences are between them.

The art of Gábor Bódy belongs to the Hungarian neo-avant-garde culture, which attracted young poets, writers and film directors between the 1960s and 1980s, whose role models were partially the greatest Hungarian modernist authors, as for example Sándor Weöres. He was admired because in his poetry he assimilated the modes of existence of the twentieth century up to the 1980s to the utmost and he examined the European cultural tradition from a special critical point of view i. e. cultural pessimism, and he analysed and synthesised the very different and noteworthy heritage of Hungarian and world literature, therefore, due to his ability to get connected with his poetry to all the significant trends, he occupies a similar position in the Hungarian literature as, for instance, Ezra Pound in the Anglo-Saxon tradition.(1)

At first, let us see the cultural and literary tendencies that we encounter in Psyché, the literary text, and the novelties it offered the Hungarian literature at the beginning of the 1970s, at the time of its writing. Erzsébet Lónyay is in the focus of several kinds of semiotic codes, of which the cultural code is rather significant.

In the book different kinds of texts get into a dialogic relation: first, the invented poetry of Psyché, and the narrated story of her life. It is Psyché herself who writes about it in her memoirs and her correspondence reproduced in the book, and they can be considered a pseudo curriculum vitae. In addition, she speaks about her life in her poetry, in her reflection about some poems after them, and her poems are in chronological order, which implies that they are to be read as a story. Her life and poetry is also reflected from the points of view of three other people: as I have mentioned above, two of her contemporaries, a literary historian and a fictitious actress whose name refers to a real actress in the 20 th century, Mariann Csernus who was an acquaintance of Sándor Weöres. The third point of view is that of a 20 th century literary historian, who also writes about Psyché’s poetry as a narrative story divided into the periods of a personality getting mature as a poetess and as a woman, as well. Therefore, it can be read as a Bildungsroman, however, not only Bildungsroman of a woman but that of the Hungarian poetry and orthography at the beginning of the 19 th century.(2) The dialogue of the poetry and the narrative stories from different points of view is a radical argument for the opinion that the life of the author is organic part of the oeuvre, even if Roland Barthes interpreted the relationship of the work of art and the story of its author as two different texts without connections in The Death of the Author.

Secondly, Psyché’s poems are in a dialogic relationship with the poetry and the poetic world view of some Hungarian and European poets, who are either mentioned or are characters in the story. The imitation of the style of the greatest Hungarian poet of the rococo, Csokonai can be found in some of the poems by Psyché, while the odes and the parody of epigrams are references to classicism, and one of the greatest Hungarian poet of classicism, Berzsenyi, is a character of the story depicted ironically. The greatest authors of classicism and sentimentalism are Goethe and the Hungarian Kazinczy, who meet Psyché and they write some poems dedicated to her. These poems are their original poetry inserted in the imaginary story and they are interpreted by the context as the love poems of the two poets for the young poetess. Beside the classicist style, the romantic period is also evoked by the imitation of the style of Percy Bysshe Shelley written by Psyché, and she is admired by the poetry of Hölderlin who she also met personally. The character as well as the bohemian life style of the well-known Hungarian romanticist poet, Sándor Kisfaludy or Himfy is also embodied in a memory of Psyché. It is also with reference to the romantic collecting of treasures of the folklore that Psyché imitates the style of the Hungarian folk poetry and translates gypsy folklore. The poetry and the characters of the poets mentioned above, create a literary and cultural context for the writings of the invented poetess not only textually, but also as (a fictionally) existing individual.

In the Hungarian and European cultural context Psyché’s existence is also authenticated by, for instance, the deaf Beethoven, because according to Erzsébet Lónyay, the classicist of Vienna wrote and dedicated the Für Elise to her when they met in the Brunswick Palace.

Thirdly, there is also cultural reference to the language reformation and translation movement in this period when the Hungarian national language was created, and Psyché takes part in a debate about the newly created words(3).

Fourthly, during the reform era when Hungary aimed to become independent of the Hapsburg monarchy, literary canon formation involved the imperative of writing patriotic poems. This kind of canon formation is represented by Ferenc Toldy, the literary historian and critic of that era, who intends to regulate the verses of Psyché on the basis of the national, patriotic and moral expectations of the canon, but she rejects the rules and sets her own canon following the unwritten rules of her curiosity.

It is worthy of note that at the time of and long before writing Psyché Sándor Weöres was planning to compile an anthology of the forgotten and hidden treasures and peculiarities of Hungarian poetry, and about ten years later he carried it out. The title of the collection is Három veréb hat szemmel (‘Three Sparrows with Six Eyes’), and the poems and their commentary contain information which rewrites the poetic canon of the traditional view of literature. The anthology includes Hungarian poetry which did not get into the mainstream of literary tradition, and which was written from the pagan era up to the nineteenth century. The focus of the verses is the unusual expression of the everyday life and mentality typical of certain eras, and the notes after the poems by Sándor Weöres express the personal opinion and impressions of the poet about the morality, aesthetics, linguistics, prosody, psychology and sociology that make up the background of the poems and their authors. In these remarks speaking of various eras and styles he avoided stereotypes, and he wrote freely about the taboos of Hungarian literary history, for example, in one of his remarks he says that the Hungarian literary historians don’t like acknowledging poetesses. According to his comments, the emancipation of women was missing in the Hungarian literary life as well as in the public sphere. The collection contains several poems written by poetesses whose names were unknown, and the publication of their writings re-established them in public esteem.

What was also missing from the Hungarian literary canon formation for centuries was the sense of playfulness, humour and nonsense, as well as the erotic topics, and on the contrary, the kind of seriousness which was connected to metaphysical, philosophical and religious depths that was also atypical, as opposed to the German and English literary canon. Owing to the collection by Sándor Weöres, both types of poetry can be found in the anthology of ‘Three Sparrows with Six Eyes’. The interest of Sándor Weöres is ontological, therefore he collected poems for this anthology, too, in which life and poetry are identified.(4)

Returning to Psyché, the lyrical novel, the poetry of Erzsébet Lónyay is also in a dialogical relationship with the hidden treasures mentioned above. Psyché represents the emancipated, talented female author who could not have fitted in the 19 th century literary canon, because she is female, her writings involve humour, satire, playfulness, erotic themes and metaphysical contents, and she also creates enjoyable poems of the events of everyday life, and as she attempts to take on both male and female gender roles in the society, she is similar to the title heroine of Orlando by Virginia Woolf.

As we have seen, the cultural and metanarrative codes and references make up a significant part of the lyrical novel, however, it is also true for this story that life and poetry are identified in it, just as in ‘Three Sparrows with Six Eyes’. Therefore, the cultural codes and the biological ones are interrelated in the story, because the cultural conventions determine how the biological endowments are interpreted. As I have already mentioned, whatever the non-existent poetess represents with her poetry and the way she lived in the 19 th century is authenticated by her relationships created by the novel with a lot of people who were characteristic representatives of the Hungarian and European literary, musical, social and political life in this period, which is the Hungarian reform era and the time of the revolution of independence between 1848-1849. Let us see some examples. Count József Dessewffy was a poet, a writer and a politician at the time, and in the story he is a blood relation of Psyché, because he was her uncle. She was sitting in his lap several times as a little girl, and he was pissed by her on one occasion. Another biological taboo is broken in a text when she writes about the details of her sexual relation with the young baron Miklós Wesselényi, who was in reality an outstanding politician of the reform movements.

Psyché and the reader of the lyrical novel gets into a familiar relationship with the two other main characters of the story: one of them is the Austrian baron, Maximilien Zedlitz, who is the admirer and later the husband of Psyché, and her Platonic lover, Ungvárnémeti, the poet and doctor. The relationships of these three characters are manifold, they can be interpreted on a cultural, biological and mythical or symbolical level.

First of all, we are going to examine the connections between the poet and the poetess. The poetry of László Ungvárnémeti also belongs to the oeuvres which were discovered and popularised by Sándor Weöres, and one of the reasons why he wrote the lyrical novel of Psyché is that he wanted Ungvárnémeti to get into the national literary canon, too. As we will see, the writings of the poet and the poetess are complementary because Psyché wrote using the Dionysian, and Ungvárnémeti the Apollonian quality described by Nietzsche in The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music (1872). While Psyché represents instinct, heart and the primitive culture, Ungvárnémeti stands for the reason, the brain, culture and harmony. It is similar to the distinction of the naive and the sentimental by Schiller in Über naive und sentimentalische Dichtung (1795), where the naive attempt to reflect nature which they embody, e.g. poets like Homer and Shakespeare, while the sentimental poets have lost touch with nature and are trying to depict it as a sought-for ideal, like Schiller and Wordsworth. Naive poets like Psyché create instinctually, and the sentimental poets, like Ungvárnémeti, formally.(5)

László Ungvárnémeti Tóth wrote basically in the classicist style; for instance, he imitated the Pindaric ode, and other Greek verse forms. The content of his writings was under the influence of the stoic interpretation of existence, which claims that the source of pleasure is not the body but the soul which is independent of the passing of time. However, in one of his epistles he wrote against the Christian stoic doctrines, when he wrote about the fear of death. Nevertheless, the influence of Epicureanism can also be found in his poetry, which emphasises the importance of sensation, which leads to the balanced and wise enjoyment of the pleasures of life. As opposed to stoicism, for Epicureanism the body is dominant not the soul. (6)

In the lyrical novel Ungvárnémeti is both a poet and a doctor, which symbolically means that he is an expert of both the soul and the body. The biologically given body is the origin of the psychological processes of displacement, repression and forgetting, which create the soul and the Ego, and they are the results of cultural activities.

The problematic connection between the body and the soul is the central topic of the tragedy written by Ungvárnémeti, entitled Narcissus, whose abridged version is in the lyrical novel. Both Ungvárnémeti, the poet and his hero, Narcissus fell in love with their own image, and adored themselves. Self-love is interpreted as the symbol of love between men, and of love that will never be fulfilled.

The conflict of the soul and the body of the Narcissus story can be interpreted on the mythical or symbolical level of the novel. The mythical codes are similar to the cultural ones, however, they are not determined by contemporary conventions but by archaic and hidden meanings. According to Sigmund Freud, the mythical and hidden meanings have a reference to the repressed, unconscious contents of the mind. On the mythical level Ungvárnémeti-Narcissus has a Platonic lover, Psyché, and their relationship is the combination of two myths: one of them is the myth of Narcissus and Echo and the other is the myth of Eros (or Amor or Cupid) and Psyché. The meaning of the name Psyché is manifold, because it refers to the Greek mythology in which Psyché means the soul, often depicted as a butterfly, she was also the female principle of love as opposed to Eros, and she is the psyche of modern psychology and psychoanalysis, therefore her story can be interpreted as the search for the soul or the self without gender, and the love of Psyché and Narcissus is the love between two souls.

The third main character is the husband of Psyché, Max Zedlitz, the doctor who represents reason and the practical way of life as well as the body, the materialistic principle of life. He is lame in one of his legs, and he is also identified in a poem by Psyché with the lame Hephaistos or Vulcanus, the god of fire and the art of the blacksmith. On the mythical level his relationship with Psyché can be interpreted as the myth of Hephaistos and his wife, Aphrodite or Venus, in which Aphrodite is unfaithful to her husband. Faithfulness in the novel is a question of the love between the souls, and it can be explained on the basis of Symposium by Plato, in which a myth interprets love as our search for our alter ego, another soul whose love is of an intellectual nature so as to achieve completion, goodness and absolute beauty. The conflict of Psyché is that she cannot achieve another kind of love called Agape which contains both Eros and Philia. Eros or the love of a predominantly sexual nature is what she feels towards Zedlitz-Hephaistos and Philia or brotherly love is what she feels towards Ungvárnémeti-Narcissus.

Regarding the soul-body dichotomy, the body of all the main characters are stigmatised, and therefore cultural value judgements are connected to them: Zedlitz is lame in the leg, Ungvárnémeti has syphilis, and Psyché as a licentious woman gives birth to a bastard, and as a wife she bears two children. However, the evaluation of the body of Psyché is more complicated than that, because several binary oppositions can be attached to her. Like Teiresias in the Narcissus tragedy, both Ungvárnémeti and Psyché are described as having the sexual and social characteristics of both women and men. And in this lyrical novel the Teiresias myth can be expanded to the fact that its author, Sándor Weöres changed his male role for the female role of a poetess. The change of sexual and gender role as in the Teiresias myth is a recurring theme in modernist poetry and novel (c. f. Waste Land by T. S. Eliot, the play by Apollinaire(7), and in Hungarian literature by the gender change of the author Péter Esterházy into Lili Csokonai: Tizenkét hattyú / ‘Twelve Swans’ and by Lajos Parti Nagy into Jolán Sárbogárdi: A test angyala / ‘The Angel of the Body’)

The symbolic individuality of Psyché is the combination of other binary oppositions because she is of a gypsy and an aristocratic origin, she lives in both spheres of the two extremes of the social hierarchy, she takes part in both a fictitious and a historical world simultaneously, and she lives in both mythical and historical time. Moreover, the novel shows up both sides of several points of view and norms, and the two poles become relative, and in this carnivalesque world the popular and comical culture prevails over canonisation. After the death of Psyché her spirit lives on, her burial and rebirth follow each other, as in the carnivalesque, and the life and poetry of Psyché and Ungvárnémeti start a new life in the rewritten poetic paradigms of the 19 th century, which are, according to Sándor Weöres, the antecedents of modern poetry of the 20 th century.(8)

At the beginning and at the end of the novel there are two poems about the eternal beauty and values of women written by a 20 th century Swedish poet, Arthur Lundkvist (‘The Secrets of the Woman’), and a Hungarian poet, a contemporary of Sándor Weöres, Pál Toldalagi (‘A Young Girl’). However, the beginning and the end of the filmic adaptation by Gábor Bódy (1946-1985) is the visualisation of the blue sky with the swiftly moving clouds, and these pictures are the recurring motives of the film which represent both the eternal mythical and historical time.

The film, which was produced in 1980, summarises the film tendencies of the 1970’s because it is a combination of the historical, mythical, philosophical and fictional-documentary films characteristic of the decade(9). It is also an experimental film using the methods of the avant-garde films, and the result of the combination of different film tendencies and styles divided the Hungarian audience, but it received great critical acclaim abroad.(10) Although the art of Gábor Bódy has been compared to that of Peter Greenaway and Tarkovsky, a critic of The Daily Telegraph wrote about Narcissus and Psyché that it "hardly makes much narrative sense". Now we are going to examine some examples of what might make it difficult for a foreigner to understand the film.

Similarly to the lyrical novel, the film also contains references to the Hungarian culture. The role of Kazinczy, who was a central figure of the literary life at the beginning of the19 th century, is played by János Pilinszky, one of the greatest poets of modernism. Among the actors the spectator might recognise two of the greatest representatives of the neo-avant-garde literature and arts, Miklós Erdély and Tibor Hajas, there is, however, a more significant allusion to a Hungarian actor, who has a peculiar double role in the film. The voice and the body of György Cserhalmi become separate signs in the film because his voice is given to an amateur actor (Udo Kier) who plays the role of Ungvárnémeti, while he himself acts the role of count Zedlitz with the voice of another very famous Hungarian actor. The separated body and voice of one man represents that these two symbolic people are the two forms of one ideal man.

In the film the story of Psyché and of the other two main characters is depicted in the context of Man, History and the Universe. Although the story of Erzsébet Lónyay starts in the 19 th century, it doesn’t finish at that time, as it continues up to the 20 th century until after the second world war. The emphasis is not on the poetry of Psyché described above, but on the three characters who live like symbols in history, which is seen as an abstract sign at a mythological distance, and in which the characters embody the archetypes of man and woman, body and soul, the spiritual and material principles, and as they don’t get any older, they live outside the historical or human time, they live in the sphere of existence and non-existence.(11)

The film is similar to the lyrical novel as it also contains narrative and non-narrative elements, the latter belong to the abstract and associative film signs. As I have mentioned, the clouds swiftly passing in the sky can be seen at the beginning and at the end of the film, and they appear several times during the story. After the symbolic representation of time and universe, the second recurring theme of the film is the depiction of the running horses pulling a coach. It might also be a reference to the Platonic charioteer as the superego, and the horses as the id and the ego, which remind us of the drive and desire always present in life.

Besides these associative signs referring to Eros, there is a contrast between the scenes with the recurring and dominant dark blue and green colours as opposed to the scenes with natural lighting. The colour green and the events with green background, are connected to the mythical representation of the earth and the body, while the blue stands for the sky and spirituality. These colours might have the meaning of the unconscious and the instincts, and the natural lighting that is seldom used, may represent consciousness. Psyché usually wears white and Ungvárnémeti black clothes, or the other way round, as they contradict and complement each other from several perspectives described above.

There are also narrative sequences in the film which are used for comparing two phenomena. There is, for instance, the lyrical depiction of Zedlitz and Psyché making love and after and during these images we can also see the Hungarian soldiers fighting the 1848-49 revolution of independence. This parallelism is similar to the way Psyché in the lyrical novel violated the canon formation, and the comparison of making war and love might also be an allusion to the hippie movement in the late 1960s, whose motto was ‘Make love not war’.

Another example of drawing a parallel between two sequences is showing a turning or whirling movement in two different contexts. One of them is the turning of a wheel, which is kept moving by a slave in a laundry in the backyard of a church. The next turning movement is a recurring event of the twirling and dancing of the aristocrats in a ballroom. The comparison of the two extremes of the social hierarchy is a recurring theme in the lyrical novel, as well.

As the Epicureanism and Ungvárnémeti considers the sensation of the body as fundamental, there are close-shots in the film, too, which lay stress on the senses, especially on seeing and feeling pain. The eyes in a close-shot can be seen when a doctor removes a cataract, the blood of Psyché is shown, as it is solidifying, when a polyp is taken out of her body, and the images of the decay of the dying Ungvárnémeti is presented by showing the blood solidifying again, and the brain starting to decompose. The presentation of the images of death is followed by a sequence of mythical depiction of the soul taken to the other side of the river in a boat. It is valid for the film, too, that artwork and life is interconnected, so it is also ontological, like the work of Sándor Weöres.

The pictures of death mean the culmination of Ungvárnémeti’s struggle for the perfect life of his soul within his infected body. His life in the symbolical history is a vain effort to find the harmony between microcosm and macrocosm as a doctor, a philosopher and as a poet. He’s the member of a society of individuals who have the self-interest of Narcissus, the communities disintegrate, the morals gets relative and the common interest becomes self-interest. Therefore, Ungvárnémeti’s social vision of a New Order, in which the state starts to develop, remains a utopia, too, and finally he dies closed in his own psycho-cosmos.

The interpretation of Ungvárnémeti in the film is different from the one in the lyrical novel, just like that of count Zedlitz, who also becomes the symbolic founder of a utopian society of uniformity, which becomes as repressive as the society of egotistic individuals. As we can see, the allegorical story of the two men is also the vision of two societies that cannot function. In the end they both sell that which was the aim of their life: Zedlitz his utopian estate and Ungvárnémeti his play entitled Narcissus.

All in all, the centre of interest, the mythical, historical and artistic approach is different in the two works of art. The film by Gábor Bódy is a Gesamtkunstwerk, which expands the original lyrical novel in time and symbolic space by combining the mythical-fictional film with the pseudo-documentary, historical and philosophical film using a new film language based on the unusual combination of both narrative and non-narrative means, but the aim of the story is not the introduction of the works of a great poetess who rewrites the literary, cultural and social canon of the 19 th century in the language of romance, irony and comedy without a tragic outcome, but the philosophical and artistic depiction men and women in history as biological, psychic, sexual and social beings, whose faith leads them to tragedy. As a conclusion, it’s a pity that Psyché by Sándor Weöres cannot be translated into other languages.

© Éva Ócsai (Universität Szeged)


(1) Tábor, Ádám: A váratlan kultúra. Esszé a magyar neoavantgárd irodalomról és művészetéről. Budapest: Balassi Kiadó, 1997, 99.

(2) Lengyel, József: Jegyzet egy rendkívüli regényről. In: Domokos, Mátyás, ed.: Magyar Orpheusz. Weöres Sándor emlékezetére. Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1990, 463.

(3) Weöres, Sándor: Psyché: Egy hajdani költőnő írásai. Budapest: Magvető Zsebkönyvtár, 1972, 168.

(4) Alexa, Károly: ’Weöres Sándor: Három veréb hat szemmel’. Kritika, 1978/3, 24-25.; Kis, Tamás: ’Parnasszusunk törmelékhegyén’. Alföld, 1978/1, 73-75.; Kibédi, Varga Áron: ’Múltépítő tabu-döntögetés’. In: K. V. Á.: Szavak, világok. Pécs: Jelenkor Könyvkiadó, 1998, 126-144.

(5) Cuddon, J. A.: Penguin Dictionary of Literary Terms and Literary Theory. London: Penguin Books, 1991, 564.

(6) Tóth, Sándor. Ungvárnémeti Tóth László poézisének bölcseleti vonatkozásairól. Irodalomtörténeti Dolgozatok. 167. Szeged, 1991, 33-44.

(7) Somlyó, György: Fiú-e vagy lány? Megjegyzések Weöres Sándor "Psyché"-jéhez - részletek. In: Domokos, ed.: Magyar Orpheusz, 465.

(8) Márton, László: A kitaposott zsákutca, avagy történelem a történetekben. (Két példa) In: Márton, László: Az áhítatos embergép. Pécs: Jelenkor Könyvkiadó, 1999

(9) Bikácsy, Gergely: Filmművészet Magyarországon 1960-2003. In: Török, Zsuzsa and Balázs, Éva, eds.: Új Oxford filmenciklopédia. A világ filmtörténetének kézikönyve. Budapest: Glória Kiadó, 2003, 812-826.

(10) Gyertyán, Ervin: ’Psyché’. In: Karcsai Kulcsár, István and Veress, József, eds.: Magyar filmkalauz. Negyven év száz magyar nagyjátékfilmje. Budapest, Magyar Filmintézet / Magvető Könyvkiadó, 1985, 567-571. (The film received the prize of the Bronze Leopard in Locarno and of the CIDLC jury at Figueira da Foz in 1981, and in the same year he was given the prize of the best director at the Hungarian Feature Film Review.)

(11) Galló, Sándor: ’Egyéni neurózisok? Nárcisz és Psyché’ Filmkultúra, 1986/12, 9.

4.3. Die inter- und transdisziplinären Verhältnisse kultureller Vermittlung

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For quotation purposes:
Éva Ócsai (Universität Szeged): A Lyrical Novel and its Filmic Adaptation. (Sándor Weöres: Psyché and Gábor Bódy: Narcissus and Psyché). In: TRANS. Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften. No. 16/2005. WWW:

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