|Trans||Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften||16. Nr.||Juli 2006|
Herausgeberin | Editor | Éditeur: Ludmilla Kostova (University of Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria)
Irina Perianova (Economic University of Sofia, Bulgaria)
The title of the paper is a replica of the eponymous story by Joyce Carol Oates, a haunting Gothic tale that describes growing up, awakening sexuality, the nature of evil ... and the ultimate journey, i.e. death. Oates’ story is dedicated to Dylan Thomas who asked a famous "wh" question (Where have all the flowers gone long time ago?) and deals with sexuality as exploration and curiosity hat needs to be satisfied at any cost even if the act of satisfying it brings about its own destruction, i.e. transgresses life. Travel means a lot of things, psychedelic trips included (LDCE defines trips as strange mental experiences someone has after taking a drug). Travel - real or imaginary armchair travel, or both, involves space, time, the depths of the subconscious, or even works of fiction (see Woody Allen’s "Kugelmass" where the main character travels through the pages of famous novels).
Where do we actually travel when we travel? What do we expect to find? What kind of exploration do we engage in, if any? When does travel represent a point of no return? How are different trips interconnected?
To avoid confusion I’d like to point out that statistically speaking, we are all tourists when we leave our abode for at least 24 hours (McIntosh 1990: 6), no matter whether we perceive ourselves as mass tourists, travellers or explorers. According to Crick, however, "the term 'tourist' is increasingly used as a derisive label for someone who seems content with his obviously inauthentic experiences" (1989:307). That fact is noted by scholars and professionals alike: "there’s always been an element of snobbery among people who regard themselves as travellers rather than tourists; [t]his attitude is fairly juvenile as anyone who goes abroad, unless they choose to live and work in the country, is a holidaymaker," says Sean Tipton of the British Association of Travel Agents (Davies 2005). Even migrants are sometimes regarded as escapee tourists, or residential tourists (O’Reilly 2000: 108- 116). On the other hand, "traveller" is a name given to people who have no fixed abode for at least half a year but who are not necessarily poverty-stricken or homeless. In British English "traveller" is also politically correct vocabulary for gypsy. Consequently, while there may be other focuses and differentiations between travellers and tourists, the words are often used interchangeably, within the frame of reference of the actual deeds, especially in our globalized world, even though their attitudinal, connotational meanings may sometimes clash. This is the role model adopted in this paper.
Anthropologically speaking, travel involves getting away from one's home for a particular reason. However, travel may be approached in a variety of different ways:
as a parenthesis before one goes back to one’s routine;
Holiday travel implies an end to a routine, a liminal state (on a par with going to a pub); a festival, a celebration. Often it means a different dress code, say, a switch from suits to t-shirts and shorts(1). After the introduction of paid holidays in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries,(2) travel became a must, a routine with its beginning and its end, a kind of parenthesis in the everyday routine, a marginal borderline interval of little relevance to mainstream reality.
In many cases (especially in holidaymaking) travel is bracketed as a marginal borderline interval segregated from everyday existence. It is also likely to be characterized by change of food (buffet style breakfast, full English etc, unusual in everyday routine) and in general should be described as an altered state with a changed behavioural pattern which often involves assuming a new carnival identity and constructing an alternative reality. Ideally it is a festive occasion. Normal rules, addresses (social constructions) are relaxed, suspended and alternative ways of being may be explored. The mundane existence restricting one’s freedom has faded away and one feels liberated. A case in point is that groups of young British tourists are now known all over Europe for their drunken and disorderly behaviour - not typical of the UK.
Travel breaks intersperse our life and become a must for an ordinary person, so much so that the absence of holidays may be interpreted as weird ( a sort of missing punctuation marks), - cf. Roland Barthes’ rather spiteful essay about a writer’s holiday (busman’s holiday because when on holiday writers are allegedly engaged in writing a book, editing, etc. unlike "normal" people who "get away from it all" as a matter of principle (2004). This kind of travel may be regarded as a threshold state, a break from before and a dash before after.
On the other hand, travelling as a way of life is part of the main scheme, a sentence in its own right, as it were. "Born travellers" enjoy travel for their own sake "... simply because you are in motion, because life is changing and will continue to change and everything is being renewed" (Roy 1993: 1079)
Geographically, there are different implications in travel for individuals and generations and even for different occupations, e.g. for politicians: in Bulgaria it is a commonplace to claim that with NATO membership, we will cease to be a Balkan country and the Balkan mountains will henceforth be just a geographical feature, like the Apennines in Italy. Thus, geography is sometimes an inheritance to be overcome, a mould to be broken.
In Erik Cohen’s paper published in 1972 four main tourist roles are distinguished: institutionalized (organized mass tourist and individual mass tourist) and non-institutionalized (the explorer and the drifter (cited by McIntosh1990: 199). These archetypes of tourists in many ways correspond to the psychological and sociological archetypes and are distinguished by their attitude to familiarity and novelty. The organized mass tourist is the least adventurous and remains largely confined to his "environmental bubble" throughout the trip staying almost exclusively in the micro-environment of his own country. Familiarity is at a maximum, novelty at a minimum. A mass tourist is jocularly defined as somebody who goes to see something different, in order to complain that it is not like home. Since this is a psychological type it applies to entire ethnic communities transplanted into a different geographical territory - such as Shalom Aleihem’s Kasrilovka in the USA, transferred with all its customs and traditions of Polish and Ukrainian pale of settlement villages, with very few in- and out roads into geographically neighbouring territories. See also the replicas of England in former colonies or currently in emerging destinations. In a recent TV interview on Bulgarian Channel 1, when a British woman who has recently bought a holiday home in a place in the middle of nowhere in Bulgaria was asked what she thought it was like, living in Bulgaria, she answered: "It’s just like England". The answer is not surprising and also grotesquely logical - because many other British families bought houses in the areas. By the same token, many ethnic communities in the States, especially first generation immigrants, live in their own environmental bubble and the realization of that fact created a minor terminological revolution: the country is no longer described as "the melting pot", but rather as a salad, with different salad components preserving their taste and look. (Perianova 2005). The mass tourist is the most common tourist archetype. It has been repeatedly noted that the phenomenon of institutionalized tourism is fairly recent. Travelling for pleasure is a relatively modern occurrence; furthermore, mass tourism as a cultural phenomenon evolves as a result of a radical change in man’s attitude to the world beyond the boundaries of his native habitat. Nowadays travel is pre-packaged and ready-made to the degree that the place people go to may lose its significance like the supermarket a TV dinner has come from. With the advent of the jet and pre-packaged tours geography often just doesn’t count:
"Where were you last summer?"
"Where is that?"
" I don’t know, I flew there."
(Conversation between two girls, reprinted in a German magazine and cited in McIntosh, Op.cit.: 200)
Mass tourists want proof of their travel for the very reason it is so far from being part of the main scheme of their lives (unless it turns into its antithesis). Hence, proof of travel in the form of photo albums is a must, and the popularity of pop culture artifacts, and souvenirs for friends, which are conveniently globalized , such as T-shirts saying My mother (grandfather, husband, friend, etc.) has been to Egypt (Malta, Spain, Paris, etc.) and all I got is this lousy T-shirt. Consequently, there is no denying that "a tourist in the modern age of mass tourism is associated with commercialism, the inauthentic, the trivial, the buying of signs rather than reality" (Crick 1989:327).
The individual mass tourist also does his experiencing from within "the environmental bubble" of his own country and ventures out of it only occasionally - and even then only into well-charted territory. Familiarity is still dominant but the experience of novelty is somewhat greater than the preceding type (Cohen cited. in McIntosh: 197-204). Individual mass tourists want to be known as explorers or as "discerning travellers". If this category of people want to impress at parties new destinations are a buzz word. According to Sean Tipton, of the Association of British Travel Agents, long-haul travel is now considerably cheaper than it was 20 years ago. A flight to Australia used to be two or three times the cost in real terms than it is today. There are also vast improvements in the quality of hotels in India and the Far East which means that tour operators offer them as family destinations. "This makes it much more accessible for people travelling for two or three weeks rather than a number of months. Places like Thailand are cheap when you get there, so the flight is a big proportion of the cost. In the past, people who were working couldn’t afford to go for two weeks unless they were very well off." (Davies 2005) This, however, has put off the so-called "discerning travellers" who are determined to outdo their neighbours (ibid).
The explorer, on the other hand, speaks the language and associates with the people he visits, he dares to leave his environmental bubble" much more than the previous two types but he is still careful to be able to step back into it when the going becomes too rough, retaining some of the routines and comfort of his native way of life (Cohen, op.cit). Explorers are travellers who want to immerse themselves in the culture and real environment of the unexplored Other (O’Reilly 2000:18).
The drifter shuns any kind of connection with the tourist establishment and is almost wholly immersed in the host country. He tries to live the way the people he visits live, and to share their shelter, foods and habits. He has no well-defined goals of travel. Novelty is here at its highest, familiarity disappears almost completely (ibid). A drifter is a nomad , so it is appropriate to quote Julia Krasteva’s Murder in Byzantium: "Nomadism is a sin, reaching beyond your capabilities, devoid of any morality" (Kristeva 2004: 100, translation mine, IN). The very idea of rootlessness seems despicable or threatening to most people, even when one does something as mundane as moving to a new house as in the following quotation from a story written by the Canadian writer Gabrielle Roy:
Cf. "She told me that to her no sight in the world could be more heartbreaking, more poignant even than a house moving.
"’For a while,’ she said, "it’s as if you were related to the nomads, those poor souls who slip along the surface of existence, putting their roots down nowhere. You no longer have a roof over your head. Yes, indeed for a few hours at least, it is as if you were drifting on the stream of life’." (1993: 1077)
Nomadism, unlike institutionalized travel, is a denial of borders and a violation of taboos, thus turning into an antithesis of the definition of travel above. Rootlessness is such a controversial phenomenon that it may even lead to a medical condition called a fugue state, in which people have no idea of their identity, something to be feared greatly, a loss of memory. In Wikipedia it is defined as " One or more episodes of amnesia in which the inability to recall some or all of one’s past and either the loss of one’s identity or the formation of a new identity occur with sudden, unexpected, purposeful travel away from home"(3).
Drifters and explorers travel as a way of life; they "know what it is to set forth, to be always seeking from life a possible beginning over..." (Roy 1993: 1079) And consequently, for them travel is not a bracketed parenthesis, with old routine to be continued. Writers from Kipling to Maugham describe them as: ’he’s gone native.’ Renouncing one’s roots for a man in the street is the ultimate betrayal, a refusal to accept travel for what it is, something to intersperse one’s mundane and real life with, a false novelty, aiming eventually to give status to liminality rather than reality. The attitude to drifters has in most cases been ambivalent: nomads, wanderers, tramps, vagrants, vagabonds(4), have been both hated and envied for their freedom, for the liberty to do as they please, acknowledge no borders, and gather no moss. "Many old English ballads and plays emphasize that the vagrant enjoys life more than the settled man,... is free of master and priest and can ignore social conventions" (Crowther1992:103).
Undoubtedly, economically speaking mass tourists are the most important group - tour operators and travel agents want mass tourists, not drifters or explorers, even though the latter may be described as the original trail-blazers and trend-setters. Most of us, as I’ve already pointed out, are mass tourists - albeit to differing degrees.
Another important question is that of the extent of novelty: How much novelty can most people take? Not a lot. Too much novelty means that one’s identity is dissolving in the unknown and maybe that is the reason why mass tourists want landmarks "discovered and put on the tourist map" by somebody else(5), tested and seen by countless others and therefore no longer suspect.
Moreover, as each person has his/her own space bubble, a traveller’s microcosm includes certain values which also travel and are likely to be enhanced in very different ways. When Roland Barthes declared the death of the author that declaration conjured up an echo of Shakespeare’s "Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder". It has been phrased and rephrased, time and again: Cf. one of the latest wordings I have come across: "books are mirrors: you only see in them what you already have inside you"(Zafon 2004:215), which chimes in with Barthes’ famous claim that the author is dead. Significantly, it can be interpreted not only within the frame of reference of the structuralist textual doctrine, but in terms of context, pragmatics, structural anthropology: a prospective traveller being "the reader" of an unknown country. And what does he/she see? In most cases - what they are TOLD to see - thus disproving the above maxim.
The main purpose of mass tourism is the visiting of attractions, whether genuine or contrived. "One can ask and answer questions about the various subway stations of New York or Paris only if these spots have become or have been assumed as mythical areas" (Eco 1996: 446). The tendency is to transform and manipulate them. "They are supplied with facilities, reconstructed, landscaped, cleansed of unsuitable elements, staged, organized, and as a result they become isolated from the ordinary flow of life and natural texture of the host society. Festivals and ceremonies cease to be spontaneous expressions of popular feelings" (Erik Cohen cited in McIntosh1990: 200). In Boorstin’s language (1962) they become pseudo events. A mass tourist travels in a world of his own, surrounded by, but not integrated in the host society. Consequently, for the mass tourist what he/she sees is a preconception -instilled by somebody else - mass media, travel agents, etc.
Alistair Cooke, the emblematic BBC reporter of "Letter from America" fame devoted one of his early 1990-ies letters to a thorough analysis of the purpose of travel(6) triggered off by an appeal by Tony Blair urging tourists to see modern England, rather than thatched cottages, beefeaters, or judges with wigs. "Britain today is pulsing with new technology - no more poky little pillar boxes. New styles of architecture, not old, should be the tourists’ lure" (BBC World Service, radio broadcast transcript). But in A. Cooke’s s view - for the middle-aged the thing to see is what they used to know, or wanted to know; and for foreign tourists - to visualize a preconception about the country they want to visit.
Say the name of any city and it produces certain images:
Spain: bull-fighting (not football, or symphony orchestras)
Paris: Eiffel Tower (Not medical labs for aids research)
India: Taj Mahal, (not the modern University of Calcutta)
NY suggests skyscrapers, night life, theatres (not wonderful lakes in upstate NY).
My own experiments with 1st year students and young adults produced very stereotypical images of the England they would like to see - castles, beefeaters, the Big Ben, Buckingham Palace, double-deckers and last but not least, the fog (nearly non-existent now). These stereotypical images, these preconceptions, as it were, may be false or out-of-date, but this is what an ordinary tourist wants to see, even if it is not there. Cf. also some Austrian cliches as noted by another BBC correspondent:
"It’s so frustrating," a Salzburg tour guide complained. "If I wear lederhosen, an American tourist will always ask me to sing "Edelweiss". They seem to think it’s the Austrian national anthem but it was written specially for the Sound Of Music and I’d never even heard of it before I went to the States," but they are there for tourists (Bethany Bell: March 19, 2005, Radio broadcast transcript)
These false icons result in make believe holidays: spending Halloween in Transilvania -"the spook-ctacular holiday of your life" - several days with all the vampire paraphernalia, getting the fright of your life. This pseudo event is on offer for every Halloween and provides a roaring business for Transylvanian tourist bureaus - a stay in Vlad Zepeshe’s house. It comes at quite a price - even though the famous Dracula of Braem Stoker’s fame is an ambiguous historical figure and few people, if anybody, have a real grasp of the facts; but most have heard about the "famous vampire" and for them he is more of a fact than what happened in their lives yesterday.
Another well-known Austrian phenomenon is people visiting Salzburg to see the musical icons of the famous musical Sounds of Music:
"I was confused. Who was she?
But before I had time to ask, the second woman chimed in.
"I’m so excited. I’ve wanted to come here ever since I was a kid and first saw the movie."
The penny dropped. They meant the Sound Of Music.
She, of course, was Maria, the novice nun who married Captain von Trapp and fled to America to escape the Nazis.
"I’m sorry," I said. "We haven’t seen the church."
Disappointed, the two women started back down the hill and we walked on.
Soon afterward we passed the Nonnberg Benedictine Convent.
"I bet that’s it," said my friend, although there were no signs.
"We’ve got to tell them," I said and ran down the hill.
"We found it," I cried.
The women turned and rushed towards the convent. The pilgrims had reached their destination. The Sounds Of Music has brought almost as many tourists to Salzburg as Mozart’ (Bell, ibid.)
Then, there are specialist holidays galore - from golfing to boar-hunting - and that is the only thing such tourists have seen, bar none. Across the Atlantic, the terms grief tourism (also dark tourism, disaster tourism) have subsequently been associated with visitors to Ground Zero New York, where on 11 th September 2001 the Twin Towers were demolished by terrorists with the loss of three thousand lives and a visit to New Orleans after the onslaught of Hurricane Katrina.
I have already mentioned that Erik Cohen’s differentiation between his four tourist roles is based on novelty and familiarity. Moreover, what is perceived as cultural icons (stereotypes, tourist landmarks) changes from generation to generation and varies in different cultural communities. The Eiffel tower, for example, is a relatively new tourist icon.
Destinations may be regarded as symbols and changing icons for generations, gender and cultural communities. See, for example, this conversation between two American women with grown up daughters from the same background who met in Rome by chance and are rehashing their youth and what Rome meant for them and their children in E.Wharton’s story Roman Fever:
"-I was just thinking," she said slowly, "what different things Rome stands for to each generation of travellers. To our grandmothers, Roman fever, to our mothers, sentimental dangers - how we used to be guarded!- to our daughters no more dangers than the middle of the Main Street. They don’t know it - but how much they are missing!" (1993:1343)
Cf. also the following commonplace involving the alleged London fog in Leslie Thomas’ Arrivals and Departures:
"-At least there’s no fog" (says the daughter arriving in London with her mother -IP)
" - Now, that I was looking forward to, fog," grunted the old lady. It just don’t seem right without the fog." (1992: 8)
Nostalgia is always felt by older travellers on perceiving a change of familiar icons, when they murmur that nothing is the way it used to be.
Geography may become history: ‘We are going to Venice (Paris, Majorca) for our honeymoon’ may still have an emblematic meaning for some western honeymooners in Germany, UK, Austria and even more so in Eastern Europe, but in terms of appeal there’s a marked change in popularity and the status of different destinations for different social and cultural groups. Up/down market differences do not necessarily coincide in different countries. Thus, according to some data, the ascending prestige gradation in Russia now is - Turkey, Greece, Spain, Italy, France, Thailand, Shri-Lanka, Australia but it is subject to change at any given moment. Venice may no longer be Venice in terms of prestige for different groups of tourists(7).
Even when people have actually visited a place it doesn’t always remove stereotypes from their mind. Michael Byram notes that even after British children visited France some of them were not prepared to dispense with the stereotypical image of French people eating frogs’ legs and snails, day in day out, even after a visit to France (Byram and Sarries 1991: 150).
Looking into the issue of novelty and familiarity at some length, it should be noted that "main street" in Edith Wharton’s story symbolizes home (and familiarity) in the two women’s small town in America. In fact, the idea of home seems to be latent in the very idea of travel. "Whereas primitive and traditional man will leave his native habitat only when forced by extreme circumstances, modern man is more loosely attached to his environment, much more willing to change it, especially temporarily" (Mc Intosh 1990: 197). In fairy tales travelling is always for a reason - a crusade, a pilgrimage; a way to find a wife, a cure for an illness etc, but appreciation of novelty and strangeness was hardly a goal. Conversely, familiarity is an anchor for mass tourists. Therefore the image put across by Hilton hotels is that of home: cf. this advertisement in Time magazine (McInstosh:197):
‘After seeing the jewels of Topkapi, the fabled blue Mosque and bazaars, it’s awfully nice to come home to the Istanbul Hilton.’
The British B and B concept of ‘home away from home,’ ‘a hostess with the mostess’ rings the same bells.
The tendency of the mass tourist "to abide by the guidebook" was noticed as early as 1869: "The ordinary tourist has no judgment; he admires what the infallible Murray orders him to admire... The tourist never diverges one hair’s breadth from the beaten track of his predecessors... "( Cornhill magazine cited in McIntosh: 207).
The ultimate non-acceptance of novelty is the focus of Anne Tyler’s 1985 novel "Accidental Tourist" where Macon, the main character, travels to help others avoid novelty when they travel so that they can find an island of familiarity to land on, while his sister keeps falling into the familiar rut even though her life has been changed (made novel) by marriage. Cf. also this joke about novelty and familiarity:
A new Russian tycoon has visited France and joins a discussion on cuisine: "OK, I don’t understand all this talk about French cuisine. I’ve been to France, and so what - McDonalds no different from all other McDonaldses."
Umberto Eco in his analysis of the cult movie Casablanca calls it a collection of stereotypes, a semiotic performance where every stereotype stands for something else, "not one movie but ‘movies’" (Eco 1996: 453). The same principle applies to the mass tourist who needs stereotypes in just the same way - Eiffel tower for Paris, Empire State Building for New York, Taj Mahal for India, bullfighting for Spain. Thus, tourists (or rather mass tourists) travel in time: in their secret hearts, according to Alistair Cooke, Americans want to see in Britain old architecture (not new) - beefeaters, castles, tea and crumpets, judges with wigs, and get away from the everyday routine to the country of the mind..
Last but not least, I’d like to speak about the novelty inherent in a changed mode of travel, by way of a new road ‘less travelled’, as it were, which is likely to alter the outlook and change the traveller into an explorer. A simple return to a suburban home by way of the neighbors’ swimming pools in John Cheever’s story The Swimmer turns into a liminal experience, an exploration of epic proportions: a new perspective bringing about a change of reality. To spur himself on, the hero defines himself as a nomad, even though he is a suburbanite, a well-to-do, well-integrated member of society, with all its confinements and hypocrisies. Making his way home by an uncommon route gives the main character the feeling that he is "a pilgrim, an explorer, a man with a destiny..."(1993:192). And though in the beginning, he was planning "a return to the old condition" after a swim, as in every real trail-blazing experience that proves impossible. Even in the middle of his journey the situation changes: - "In the space of an hour, more or less, he had covered a distance that made his return impossible" (ibid:194). In the end, approaching home he is going away from it, an apt description being ‘lost in travel’.
To conclude: Mass travel as a way of transgressing spiritual or spatial borders is confined to the past and involves old values and expectations. Most tourists travel to an imaginary country of their mind where they need to see the familiar landmarks (real or contrived), distinguishing it from the globalized world, and acquiring a tiny tamed bit of novelty. (8) Any country developing tourism faces this problem of creating imaginary landmarks: in Bulgaria old traditions may seem mythical to young Bulgarians but are well-known to tourists (e.g. fire-walking, a fact of life for very few Bulgarians, is very touristy). Though mass tourism is a swear word for the sophisticates, out of fashion, almost equated with terrorism - the new contrasting buzz being a discerning traveller as opposed to chaveller - it is mainly deja vu that makes mass tourists tick. We shouldn't wonder, then, at the emergence of new instances of p.c. such as alternative tourism, eco tourism, sustainable tourism, or mission tourism - because the sophisticates want to be the explorers who create new stereotypes. However this is wishful thinking and is hardly feasible. It is explorers and drifters, the people who crave novelty most, and are ready to shun familiarity, who create new landmarks for the mass tourists who hardly know where they have been.
© Irina Perianova (Economic University of Sofia, Bulgaria)
(1) Cf. the title of the well -known book by Malcolm Bradbury: All Dressed Up and Nowhere to Go which, as it were, shows the frustration involved when this change from everyday routine is not finalized.
(2) In the UK it became a legal requirement for employers to give their employees holiday entitlement as late as 1938 (Outhart et al. 1990: 10)
(3) See for example the following bizarre story published in http://www.news.com.au/story/0,10117,17952916. Accessed: 10/11/2005
On July 2, 2003, Bruce, then 35, found himself on a train bound for Coney Island. He did not know who he was, he did not know where he lived, he did not know where he was going and he did not know where he had come from. "I was scared," he says. "I had no bearings. I did not know anything. It was frightening, it was like being in the darkness." Bruce had bumps on his skull and a throbbing headache but, otherwise, no physical injuries.He had suffered an almost total memory loss. When he was admitted to hospital, a nurse, Lily Frost, with no idea of his identity, taped a white band to his wrist on which she wrote: "Unknown white male . " Bruce had entered what neurologists diagnosed as a fugue state, in which he had no knowledge of his life up until that moment.
(4) Even though I realize the link to the state of the labour market (See. Crowther. Op cit ) I choose to focus on the idea of rootlessness, rather than the social characteristics of the so-called tramps, nomads, etc. and not on the differences between different groups of tramps.
(5) A case in point is the new phenomenon, popular mainly with the Americans: Da Vinci Code Tourism which is now featured in some guides.
(6) I should perhaps specify that he meant mass or individual mass tourism.
(7) This information is subject to change and no claims of exhaustive statistics are made.
(8) For the locals, some things change, others remain unchanged. It is perhaps unsurprising that drinks globalize easier than foods. Bulgarian rakia is a must for villagers, because it is traditional, home-produced and cheap - but in globalized companies and communities a drink of choice may be vodka or whisky. Of course there is a backlash - Bulgarian pride and high-mindedness may result in reverting to the old patterns of rakia drinking for some individuals.
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Barthes, Roland, Mythologies (Bulgarian translation), Sofia: Colibri, 2004.
Bell, Bethany, Sounds of Music. From our Own Correspondents, BBC World Service, March 19, 2005 (broadcast transcript)
Boorstin, Daniel, The Image, New York: Atheneum, 1962
Byram, Michael M. and Veronica Esarte Sarries, Investigating Cultural Studies in FL Teaching (Two Topics in Cultural Studies), Multilingual Matters, 1991
Cheever, John, "The Swimmer", R.Rubinstein and Ch.Larsen.(eds), Worlds of Fiction, NY: Macmillan, 1993.
Cohen, Erik, Social Research, vol.39 no 1 (spring 1972)
Cooke, A., Letters from America, BBC World Service (broadcast transcript)
Crick, M., "Representations of International Tourism in the Social Sciences: Sun, Sex, Sights, Savings and Servility", in Annual Review of Anthropology, 18, 307-44
Crowther, M.A., " The Tramp", in Roy Porter (ed), Myths of the English", London: Polity Press 1992
Davies, Catriona, "Chavellers send Travellers to the Ends of the Earth.
http://news.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2005/11/15/ntrav15.xml. Accessed: 20/11/2005
Eco, Umberto, "Cult Movies and Intertextual Collage", in D.Lodge (ed) Modern Criticism and Theory, N. Y.: Addison Wesley Longman Inc., 1996
Kristeva, Julia, Murder in Byzantium (Bulgarian translation), Sofia: PSP, 2005.
LDCE - Longman Dictionary of English Language and Culture. 2005
McIntosh, Robert and CharlesGoeldner, Tourism. Principles, Practices, Philosophies, John Wiley and Sons, 1990
Oates, Joyce Carol, "Where are you going, where have you been?" in R.Rubinstein and C.Larsen.(eds) ,Worlds of Fiction, NY: Macmillan, 1993.
Outhart, I.,. L. Taylor, R. Barker, Travel and Tourism, Marvell Collins, Advanced Vocational Training, 2000.
O’Reilly, Caren, British on the Costa del Sol, London: Routledge, 2000.
Perianova, Irina, "Is Globalism Skin Deep?", in M.Danova (ed) The Transatlantic and the Transnational in a Changing Cultural Context, Sofia, 2005
Roy, Gabrielle, The Move (Translated by Joyce Marschall) in R.Rubinstein and Ch.Larsen.(eds) Worlds of Fiction, NY: Macmillan, 1993
Thomas, Leslie, Arrivals and Departures, London: Methuen, 1992
Wharton, Еdith, "Roman Fever", in R.Rubinstein and C. Larsen.(eds), Worlds of Fiction NY: Macmillan, 1993
Zafon, Carlos Ruis, The Shadow of the Wind., London: Phoenix, 2004 (Translated by Lucia Graves).
5.6. Border Zones: Travel, Fantasy and Representation
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