TRANS Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften 17. Nr. April 2010

Sektion 8.12. Framed Knowledge as an obstacle for creativity and transition of societies
Sektionsleiterin | Section Chair: Farhad Atai (University of Tehran)

Dokumentation | Documentation | Documentation

Solving the problems of the past

Jura Latifov (Tajik-Slavic University)


The content of "the model of stabile human development" means the creation of a new type of a thinking student, when stereotypic ideas make concessions to new philosophy identifying all people as bearers of innovative and progressive challenges, independently of their race, sex and nationality. Thus, the development of the paradigm of creativity of students is the most immediate problem for us, professors and teachers, as we promote the society in transition. In the case of some more important selection alternatives, students must be more open and willing to gain modern knowledge and skills.

What are the mechanisms and tools for concentrating the attention of the students on that openness and curiosity?

Seeking the response to these questions enables you to say that the games and arts are the main tools to raise activity and creativity of the students.

As you are aware, the main aim of soviet education system was upbringing the communism builder targeted to gain the knowledge of humanity without personal skills on community transformation. That made a gap between the building capacities of the youth in 'our' and 'their' systems of knowledge.

The euphoria has passed after the sovereign parade. In 1991, Tajikistan, as many other countries, was not ready for its full independence, and very soon some major problems of political, socio-economic and cultural nature came up, because of the country's economic dependence on Russia. Solution of those problems has required time and joint efforts of the whole society.

The period of transformation from a totalitarian community to a democratic and secular society was launched through economic way of development.

Then, disclaim and complete rejection of orthodox ideology followed, related to deterioration of traditional forms and components such as education and culture with the principle of domination of the power. The attitude towards religion is changed.

Politically established ideas such as pantukizm, paniranizm, Islam, Western civilization, social and life conditions, production method, have influenced intellectual strata of the society.

Now, a gradual building of the legacy of interuniversity cooperation is essential.

International organizations such as UNICEF, Aga-Khan Foundation, OJS "Soros", American Consul for Cooperation in Education and Language (ACCELE), UNESCO and others, organize educational centers, regular conferences, courses, seminars for raising the level of skills in educational field, publish manuals adapted to new conditions, etc.

In conditions of the adverse economic and intellectual crisis in the country, there is a possibility that Tajikistan can become a subject for expansion of radicalism among some parts of population.

The expansion of economic cooperation between the Republic of Tajikistan and Islamic Republic of Iran, Arabic Countries, Pakistan, and Turkey was followed by strengthening of the relations in intercultural and intellectual spheres - that was manifested in opening of cultural centers, also in publication and distribution of religious literature, in training of Tajik teenagers in religious centers of Egypt, Jordan, Turkey and Pakistan. Books, newspapers and journals published by these centers have influence to Muslim population.

Generally speaking, cultural and mental system of Tajikistan is under the influence of powerful gravity field of different centripetal and centrifugal vector forces of influence. Its main base is found in secondary schools which can be characterized by the following: 90% of school buildings need to be repaired (25% of all schools in the country are damaged):

The old financial and management system for the education sector is functioning up to now from top to bottom: Ministry - Departments of Public Education - Secondary Schools; self-management and self-financing system are not introduced.

Because of the low income of teachers (whose minimal salary is 80 Somoni), the corruption activity takes place in schools as they are bribed by pupils' parents illegally. The attempts to introduce the rent form for distribution of the manuals, taking into account low consumption ability of population, also failed due to the same corruptibility of workers in this system.

Many schools in the country were not provided with computers; another problem is the electric power deficit, and also the lack of trained instructors, IT specialists.

Financing is performed by the old method - as per number of classes but not as per number of pupils per one teacher. In conditions of new market economy, the budget of education sphere should be based on interests of trainees. The practice of attracting of non-budget funds to schools is not used yet, neither the art of enterprising and revising training as kinds of rendering of the necessary services.

Surveys held in pilot schools of Rudaki region revealed that current salary of teachers satisfy their basic living needs in the ration from 5% to 20%; 80% of teachers have to earn additional income elsewhere.

A teacher has to work much more in order to earn for living while working in the education system under current conditions. The present educational task and burden of a teacher is big, in such cultural and mental spheres - with the opening of cultural centers, the publication and distribution of religious literature, training of Tajik teenagers in religious centers of Egypt, Jordan, Turkey and Pakistan. Books, newspapers and journals published by these centers have a significant influence on Muslim population.

Such bad situation is prevailing among the students of non-juridical faculties where 36-48 hours are provided for studying jurisprudence. By using such education period allocated for jurisprudence, it becomes impossible to provide comprehensive training and to cover wide political legal and political aspects of democratic society. Not to mention the real problems such as human rights, elections in democratic society, freedom of speech, and the mass media as a part in democratic society.

Recently, the management of the Mass Media organization addressed the President. The letter stated that INTERNET is to be considered as Mass Media and the press responsible for libels and offenses in the Internet - which contradicts the Constitution that guarantees the freedom of speech and that prohibits the censorship. It is astonishing that internet users, mainly the young population, did not respond to it in any manner.

These and other reasons are the main problem of legal nihilism of the young population and show their low political culture. Therefore, their attitude to social issues, as well as to their own life is not considered.

According to the results of the contest arranged by the Institute for Raising Qualification of President's Office of the Republic of Tajikistan (Summer 2007), in regard of the selection of state employees among the population up to the age of 35, revealed that the quality of education and legal culture among young population category is low. Tests were targeted for determining the professional knowledge, organization capabilities, management skills and usage of human resources, liability limit when taking decisions, computer skills, sociability, knowledge of languages and etc. Just 26 out of 1166 candidates were selected.

Out of 166 candidates who were admitted to the last round with lowest passing score (30), non-passing score marked the following questions:

  1. Self-responsibility measures in decision taking - 23% of candidates;
  2. Courage and self-independence in decision taking - 26% of candidates;
  3. Knowledge of state management principles - 16% of candidates.

The situation is aggravated by the actual state of the society. This is very disturbing: the instability of social, economic and ecological situation, mental sphere, discrediting of common and moral qualities.

Generally widely discussed evil of terrorism plays a secondary role in people's minds. They are far from real threats. Mainly they are concerned with following problems:

  1. Would my family be provided with housing?
  2. Can I pay for the accommodation and public utilities?
  3. Can my family budget cope with price increase?

In comparison of 1300 hours in average in our country, such indicator for secondary schools in Germany is 780 hours, in Norway - 700 hours, in Hungary - 550 hours, in Turkey - 360 hours.

Teachers, especially young staff, are leaving the schools because of low salaries. We need about 1500 teaching staff. This makes the situation worse, because the number of pupils is significantly becoming lower than the number of training places in schools; illegal collection of funds force families with many children to deprive theirs children of education. Therefore, it is not possible to talk about equal access to education. Poverty indicators exist not only in socio-economic sphere, but also in education effectiveness and improvement its results.

Also the rating scale for assessing the pupils' progress should be changed. Our country tries to develop a democratic basis in order to create a new civil society. Of course it depends not only on time, but also on intellectual and material resources. Raising of teenagers' education level and its quality in general, creating the legal and political and civic culture is a guarantee for development of democratic processes in a new and independent republic.

In order to make of all pupils and students responsible citizens, we should help them realize that their course is provided by our society. They should understand the political structure of their country and the ways how to be active in implementation of their own rights and obligations.

It is very nice that our president, Mr. Emomali Rakhmon has had organized meetings with teenagers on regular basis, because this part of population is very sensitive and dynamic. It is important that frequently teenagers raise common, domestic issues and request the Head of the Republic to assist them in solving these problems. Thereby, some attention is paid to the raised questions and the young people can believe that the President may solve such problems and that this is a prerogative of the Head but not of the young people.

Hence, this will promote a further social inactivity. The mentioned problems should be treated in a legal manner through legislative initiative; that requests to Deputies elected from appropriate districts, a Committee on Young Population Affairs. This Committee has to introduce the alternative legislation projects dealing with problems of young population and protection of their rights. The analysis of education plans and programs in secondary and high educational institutes of Tajikistan reveal that issues of civil education and political structure cover the education process slightly. It is not possible to give in details the main issues of legal and political structure of society in one single manual "The Basis of State and Rights", and present it in 9-10 classes in secondary schools. Not so long ago, a new educational discipline "Human's Rights" was introduced for 9-10 classes of secondary schools. There are a lot of omissions in the context of these manuals.

This causes an insufficient participation of the young people in the process of making key and critical decisions. This results in the weakening and preventing of democratic reforms in Tajikistan and in social passiveness of its citizens. Transition to two-level educational system in the higher education (master and bachelor) is not only premature but indeed impossible, when the pre-school education shows such a gap, when the level of the primary and secondary education, and stimulations and motivations to gain strong knowledge have decreased.

In the process of moral impoverishment and individual degradation, the interference and the contribution of international organizations such as the OSCE is, is necessary.



8.12. Framed Knowledge as an obstacle for creativity and transition of the societies

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For quotation purposes:
Jura Latifov: Solving the problems of the past- In: TRANS. Internet-Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften. No. 17/2008. WWW:

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